The above techniques are more suitable for site conditions and the presence of obstructions than calculating and then setting out discrete points as with these methods only one direction is fixed. Calculation time is also significantly reduced. The next generation of total stations will have much greater memories and the facility to run user-generated programs (see example). A Psion II can also be attached directly to an EDM and run software. This would eliminate any booking errors.
Using a total station or programmable calculator (programme coordinates from bearing and distance) obtain the coordinates of the prism position. Move the prism until the required easting or northing is achieved. Repeat this for the other 3 points. This method can be used for setting out kickers.
Obtain the coordinates of the prism position, then using a programme (bearing and distance from coordinates) calculate the distance from the centre of the curve to the prism position. Move the prism until the distance from centre point equals the radius.
Obtain the coordinates of the prism position, then using a programme (chainage and offset from coordinates) calculate the chainage and offset from the given line. Move the prism until the offset is zero (or the required value). Repeat to obtain the required chainage. This technique can be employed for setting out kickers on non-square grids or a drainage run which is not parallel to grid north.